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As the following presentation of biometrics history shows, fingerprinting is the grandparent of biometric modalities ancient documents were authenticated with prints, and the research leading to the current highly sophisticated forensic use of prints began more than 150 years ago. The system based on collecting all 10 prints still used by the FBI is based in 19th century research, as is classification of prints by reference to specific "minutiae." law enforcement officials at all levels around the globe can now exchange fingerprints electronically and perform swift matches in a database that includes millions of prints and supporting information. One drawback to fingerprinting is the need to secure the subject's cooperation to get high-quality print. In addition to law enforcement systems applications of fingerprinting include access control for computers and software as well as for buildings, rooms, and containers. (These are generally not based on the 10-print system used by the FBI and other enforcement agencies.)